Demonstrating an Aqueous Air-Breathing Energy Storage System for Multi-Day Resiliency

Form Energy, Inc.


Somerville, MA

Recipient Location



Amount Spent



Project Status

Project Update

This project had its kick-off meeting in September 2020. As part of their technology development, the project team also completed their Codes and Standards evaluation to assess how they might affect long-duration storage deployment. This included a comprehensive review of relevant safety codes for similar battery technologies, cross-referenced with an internal Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) which ranks expected failure modes by priority. This will lead to future work supporting appropriate safety testing procedures that will be both written and executed for Sub-Scale Cells and Full-Scale Cells (FSCs). The results will be evaluated to improve safe design of FSCs. A duty-cycle protocol was developed in 2023 with the support of advisors and partners, including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Commissioning and testing will begin in Spring 2024 with results anticipated at the end of 2024.

The Issue

No commercially available energy storage technologies can cost-effectively provide multiple days of energy storage duration needed to achieve reliable 100% renewable energy over a year or to maintain energy service in the event of multi-day grid outages caused by wildfire and public safety power shutoffs or other grid outages. Existing technologies are either too expensive or geographically dispersed.

Project Innovation

This project will be the first independently verified prototype-scale demonstration of a new form of low-cost, long-duration thermal energy storage that has the potential to be over 100-times cheaper per kWh than lithium-ion energy storage and provide multiple days-to-weeks of continuous zero-carbon backup power in customer and grid applications. The prototype will use breakthrough battery materials sourced from super-abundant, ultra-low-cost, globally scalable materials from existing supply chains.

Project Goals

Demonstrate the performance of Form Energy’s multi-day energy storage system under a range of simulated use cases.
Design and build a Form Energy ~10 kW/1000 kWh Module for external validation.
Demonstrate a pilot-scale system to characterize performance to customer needs.

Project Benefits

This project will help accelerate the knowledge and understanding of long duration energy storage technologies that can operate for 100 hours or more. Additionally, this project will help understand how longer duration energy storage technologies can support rising grid resiliency challenges. If these long duration technologies can perform as they project, energy storage can also be used to replace natural gas power powerplants in the future. This effort will also provide performance information that help validate if very low-cost energy storage can actually be developed, fielded and demonstrated.

Lower Costs


Compared to previous low cost, long-duration energy storage technology prototypes, this module will have an improved energy footprint by 30 times, duration improved by a factor of 4, and round-trip efficiency increased by 10%.

Greater Reliability


The laboratory evaluation of this novel, long-duration storage technology will provide data about the optimal use of multi-day battery energy storage under a range of simulated use cases.

Key Project Members

Project Member

Jessica Nyquist

Project Manager
Form Energy, Inc.



Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.


University of California, Irvine


Match Partners


Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.


University of California, Irvine


Form Energy, Inc.


Exponent Inc


Contact the Team