Demonstrating Code-compliant Energy Storage Systems and Their Capabilities for Grid Harmonization

Evaluates the effectiveness of energy storage in zero net energy ready homes in terms of managing customer costs, providing grid harmonization and reducing grid carbon when applied as per Title 24 and when applied in the mode that is standard for

Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.


Palo Alto, CA

Recipient Location


Senate District


Assembly District



Amount Spent



Project Status

Project Update

The project team has identified the project sites along with participating builders. The team has completed evaluations of various methods to control and aggregate energy storage systems behind the meter. In addition, the team has been working with various vendors and evaluating the capability and capacity of their residential energy storage systems to determine which will be installed. As of December 2023, the project team has deployed seven (with two additional installations pending) residential lithium-ion batteries in the northern climate zone and is in negotiations with several homeowners in the northern, central valley, and coastal climate zones.

The Issue

Recent updates to the Title 24 building code require solar PV on all new residential construction. As a result of more frequent grid outages from power safety power shutoffs (PSPS) and wildfire events, customers are expected to be more interested in adding energy storage to their homes for resilience. However, homeowners do not fully understand the value that they can achieve by having solar plus storage in the home.

Project Innovation

This project will install and connect energy storage units to existing solar panels at a minimum of 15 new construction single-family homes in three different California climate zones. The recipient will test and evaluate the control and operation of the systems to capture the best operational practices of the systems for the residents and the grid. The recipient will also provide insight into any future changes to Title 24 building code to help realize these values.

Project Goals

Analyze different compliance pathways, with & without energy storage, to achieve Title 24 energy & efficiency requirements
Quantify impact coordinated operation of localized energy storage can provide to mitigate demand surges & benefit the grid
Report on potential areas of improvement of the current building code.
Further develop control and optimization strategies, as needed to improve grid harmonization of the building code.

Project Benefits

The project will help overcome barriers to implementing residential storage by providing recommendations derived from field demonstrations. The project will also help to enhance Title 24 building code to better suit California's plans for decarbonizing the grid through more and better use of renewable generation. Potential new homes built in alignment with a better developed Title 24 building code favoring controllable energy storage could provide greater cost savings to homeowners and greater grid stability. This project will assess the operation of commercially available residential battery storage systems and develop new use cases by exploring tariff structures, independent control strategies (such as helping to optimize residential energy use, particularly during the evening ramp), and cost considerations that provide maximum benefits to both the customer and the grid.

Lower Costs


Connecting energy storage systems with mandated solar energy generation systems in new residential construction can result in reducing customer demand charges by appropriately controlling the generation and storage for the customers' loads particularly during periods of peak rates.

Greater Reliability


Controlling solar-plus-storage systems in new residential construction can result in maximizing solar energy generation during high generation, low demand hours that can reduce reliance on power plants needing to ramp up production to meet demand and relieve pressure on the stressed grid infrastructure.

Energy Security

Energy Security

In October 2019, public safety power shutoff events left nearly two million Californian utility customers without electricity during two separate weekends. Customers with that only had solar PV were often unable to take advantage of renewable power. Adding energy storage and properly controlling the combination should ensure critical loads stay active during these types of events.

Key Project Members

Project Member

Herb Yaptinchay

Project Manager
Project Member

Evan Giarta

Principal Investigator



TRC Engineers, Inc.


Abstractal LLC

Match Partners


Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.


TRC Engineers, Inc.

Contact the Team