Hybrid Modular Storage System (HMSS) as a long-duration energy storage technology Demonstration

Indian Energy LLC


Anaheim, CA

Recipient Location


Senate District


Assembly District



Amount Spent



Project Status

Project Update

This grant was fully executed in November 2020 and has begun the development of the required subcontracts needed to develop and implement the Hybrid Modular Storage System. The four storge technology suppliers have been identified. They are: Invinity (Vanadium flow battery), EOS (Zinc Hybrid Cathode battery), Eaton 9Super capacity), and Amber Kinetics (flywheel). Invinity and EOS batteries have been delivered to the test site at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar.

The Issue

While large scale energy storage is a critical success factor in the widespread de-carbonization of the nation's electric power generation and delivery capability, single technology solutions to date do not offer the required capacity, they are too expensive, have short duty cycles, and much of their approach is harmful to the environment when decommissioning occurs. Furthermore,there is no single technology that addresses all needs when there are various applications and requirements.

Project Innovation

This project will develop a highly customizable solution for energy storage that will efficiently deliver the optimal system configuration of energy storage technologies that will best fit the application needed by the DOD and other end users. The approach to dealing with a highly customized problem is to create an energy storage solution that equally customized to meet the requirements of each application. Indian Energy's solution accomplishes this through a Hybrid Modular Storage System (HMSS). The project will use the HMSS with three diverse non-Li ion energy storage technologies consisting of flow batteries, zinc hybrid cathodes batteries, and a fast responding mechanical energy storage system to determine which system or combination of systems best responds to the needs of the Marines and the DOD. The final selected systems will provide 10 hours or more of energy storage capability to a critical facility on the Pendleton Marine Corp Air Station.

Project Benefits

This Agreement will lead to technological advancement and breakthroughs to overcome barriers to the achievement of the State of California's statutory energy goals by helping to characterize the performance of a few different energy storage solutions at TRL 4 in a targeted new scalable microgrid architecture that is a candidate for wide deployment over the next few years in California and worldwide, and to advance those solutions to TRL 6. By enabling more energy storage technologies to be integrated into a full solution, this project will enable greater renewable energy penetration by creating greater flexibility for storing excess renewable energy generation.

Environmental & Public Health

Environmental Sustainability

An individual HMSS unit reduces 62,634 kg of CO2 emissions per year when charged with renewable energy generation and discharged at peak load hours.

Increase Safety


The usage of non-flammable technologies in the full-scale integration ensures that the risk of thermal runaway is mitigated compared to Lithium-Ion technologies.

Energy Security

Energy Security

The best HMSS will then be scaled to 400kW/4MWh to achieve the 400kW, for 10 hours.

Key Project Members

Project Member

Allen Cadreau



Webcor Builders, Inc.


Michael Firenze Inc


Match Partners


Webcor Builders, Inc.


United States Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton


Contact the Team