Modeling of Long-Duration Storage for Decarbonization of California Energy System

The project will develop improved modeling tools capable of analyzing future grid scenarios involving emerging storage and generation technologies.


The Regents of the University of California, Merced


Merced, CA

Recipient Location


Senate District


Assembly District



Amount Spent



Project Status

Project Update

The project has completed its baseline bulk system analysis and defined its preliminary grid scenarios for further analysis. The baseline analysis and preliminary scenarios were presented at a public workshop in November 2021, where attendees provided information about potential modeling sensitivities, characteristics of various energy systems, and the expected roles of hydrogen production, storage, and transport in a decarbonized grid.

The Issue

To meet California's clean-energy goals, low-cost solar and wind generation are a partial solution, but low-cost electricity is also needed when solar and wind generation are not available. While many new technologies show promise to provide the needed energy storage and demand management, their paths to market are uncertain. Modeling of California's energy systems requires extensive analysis of data including weather, geography, and the mixture of energy resources across the grid. The project's challenge is to aid in identifying which actions to take and what the timing of those actions should be by studying the roles and cost targets of storage technologies.

Project Innovation

The project is modeling the expansion of the grid using the SWITCH model and an improved version of the RESOLVE model which incorporates variable timesteps to allow full-year modeling. Modeling different grid scenarios, developed with feedback from industry experts, will help to define the role and useful cost targets for long-duration storage technologies as they are scaled to gigawatt levels.

Project Benefits

The project team will develop scenarios to reach California's clean-energy targets by updating modeling tools and analyzing broad datasets. Emerging long-duration storage technologies are expected to have a critical role in achieving a zero-carbon grid by 2045, and understanding the interaction of long-duration storage with other energy resources is an integral component of the study.

Economic Development

Economic Development

The project is developing improved modeling tools and datasets to analyze future grid scenarios involving emerging storage and generation technologies.

Environmental & Public Health

Environmental Sustainability

The pathway to SB100 goals identified by this project will accelerate the transition to a zero carbon energy grid, leading to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

Key Project Members

Project Member

Sarah Kurtz

Project Member

Patricia Hidalgo-Gonzalez

UC San Diego
Project Member

Dan Kammen

UC Berkeley



University of California, Berkeley


UC San Diego


Match Partners


The Regents of the University of California, Merced

Contact the Team